甲磺酸多拉司琼片ANZEMET tablet

药店国别:

产地国家:美国

处方药:

所属类别: 100毫克/片 5片/盒

包装规格: 100毫克/片 5片/盒

计价单位:

生产厂家中文参考译名:

生产厂家英文名:VALIDUS PHARMACEUTICALS

原产地英文商品名:ANZEMET 100mg/tablet 5tablet/box

原产地英文药品名:Dolasetron Mesylate

中文参考商品译名:ANZEMET 100毫克/片 5片/盒

中文参考药品译名:甲磺酸多拉司琼

曾用名:

简介:部份中文甲磺酸多拉司琼处方资料(仅供参考)药品英文名Dolasetron药品别名Anzement甲磺酸多拉司琼药物剂型片剂:每片含本品50mg,100mg。注射剂:每支1mL含本品20mg。

药理作用

本品是一种选择性5-羟色胺(5-HT1)受体拮抗剂,作用类似于昂丹司琼和格拉司琼。本品口服和静注用于防治癌症化疗引起的恶心或呕吐。静脉注射完全阻止恶心和呕吐的剂量为0.5mg/kg。口服产生同样效果的剂量为2mg/kg。本品对其他5-HT受体,α-或β-肾上腺素能受体、多巴胺D2受体、毒蕈碱受体无显著的亲和力和钙拮抗活性。5-HT3拮抗联用地塞米松或其他皮质激素对预防癌症化疗引起的急性呕吐是最有效的治疗方案。美国FDA建议本品也可用于预防和治疗术后恶心和呕吐。药动学静脉注射本品后,消除半衰期t1/2为10min,本品在血浆和肝脏中迅速代谢成氢化多拉司琼(MDL74、156),此活性代谢物的Cmax约35min达到。此活性代谢物在肝脏中经CYD2D6和CYP3A进一步代谢,而后随尿液和粪便排出,血浆半衰期t1/2为8h,清除率为13.4mL/(min·kg)。代谢物MDL74.156本身具有较强的5-HT受体拮抗作用。

适应证

适用于肿瘤化疗药物引起的恶心和呕吐,也可用于预防和治疗术后恶心和呕吐。

禁忌证

对本品过敏者禁用,妊娠和哺乳期妇女和儿童禁用。

注意事项

高血压未控制的患者,剂量不得超过100mg/d。

不良反应

本品不良反应与昂丹司琼和格拉司琼类似,有轻微的头痛、头昏等。通常临床症状不明显,可自行恢复。可出现剂量相关的短暂的心电图变化。

用法用量

口服,100mg/次,1次/d;静脉注射每次5mg/kg,1次/d。药物相应作用临床研究本品止吐作用比其他5-HT3受体拮抗作用更强,对609例使用顺铂的患者进行随机试验表明:单剂量静注本品1.8mg/kg,对预防急性呕吐完全有效者为49%。本品2.4mg/kg静注有效率为46%,而昂丹司琼32mg静注有效率50%。本品静注的止吐效果与格拉司琼等同。本品100mg单剂量口服使用于中度止吐患者,约60%患者能完全预防其呕吐反应。

【原研情况】

甲磺酸多拉司琼(dolasetron mesilate),由德国Hoechst Marion Roussel 公司研发,1997年由Sanofi-Aventis(赛诺菲-安万特)公司首次在澳大利亚上市,1998年在美国上市。本品为5-HT3受体拮抗剂,临床主要用于治疗由化疗、放疗引起的术后恶心及呕吐,止吐作用较盐酸阿扎司琼(azasetronhydrochloride)和盐酸格拉司琼(granisetron hydrochloride) 等其他5-HT3 受体拮抗剂作用更强。

甲磺酸多拉司琼片英文版说明书

ANZEMET® Tablets(dolasetron mesylate)DESCRIPTIONANZEMET (dolasetron mesylate) is an antinauseant and antiemetic agent. Chemically, dolasetron mesylate is (2α,6α,8α,9aβ)-octahydro-3-oxo-2,6 methano-2H-quinolizin-8-yl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate monomethanesulfonate, monohydrate. It is a highly specific and selective serotonin subtype 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist both in vitro and in vivo. Dolasetron mesylate has the following structural formula:The empirical formula is is C19H20N2O3• CH3SO3H • H2O, with a molecular weight of 438.50. Approximately 74% of dolasetron mesylate monohydrate is dolasetron base.Dolasetron mesylate monohydrate is a white to off-white powder that is freely soluble in water and propylene glycol, slightly soluble in ethanol, and slightly soluble in normal saline.Each ANZEMET Tablet for oral administration contains dolasetron mesylate (as the monohydrate) and also contains the inactive ingredients: carnauba wax, croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, lactose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, pregelatinized starch, synthetic red iron oxide, titanium dioxide, and white wax. The tablets are printed with black ink, which contains lecithin, pharmaceutical glaze, propylene glycol, and synthetic black iron oxide.CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGYDolasetron mesylate and its active metabolite, hydrodolasetron (MDL 74,156), are selective serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists not shown to have activity at other known serotonin receptors and with low affinity for dopamine receptors. The serotonin 5-HT3 receptors are located on the nerve terminals of the vagus in the periphery and centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of the area postrema. It is thought that chemotherapeutic agents produce nausea and vomiting by releasing serotonin from the enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine, and that the released serotonin then activates 5-HT3 receptors located on vagal efferents to initiate the vomiting reflex.Acute, usually reversible, ECG changes (PR and QTc prolongation; QRS widening), caused by dolasetron mesylate, have been observed in healthy volunteers and in controlled clinical trials. The active metabolites of dolasetron may block sodium channels, a property unrelated to its ability to block 5-HT3 receptors. QTc prolongation is primarily due to QRS widening. Dolasetron appears to prolong both depolarization and, to a lesser extent, repolarization time. The magnitude and frequency of the ECG changes increased with dose (related to peak plasma concentrations of hydrodolasetron but not the parent compound). These ECG interval prolongations usually returned to baseline within 6 to 8 hours, but in some patients were present at 24 hour follow up. Dolasetron mesylate administration has little or no effect on blood pressure.In healthy volunteers (N=64), dolasetron mesylate in single intravenous doses up to 5 mg/kg produced no effect on pupil size or meaningful changes in EEG tracings. Results from neuropsychiatric tests revealed that dolasetron mesylate did not alter mood or concentration. Multiple daily doses of dolasetron have had no effect on colonic transit in humans. Dolasetron has no effect on plasma prolactin concentrations.Pharmacokinetics in HumansOral dolasetron is well absorbed, although parent drug is rarely detected in plasma due to rapid and complete metabolism to the most clinically relevant species, hydrodolasetron.The reduction of dolasetron to hydrodolasetron is mediated by a ubiquitous enzyme, carbonyl reductase. Cytochrome P-450 (CYP)IID6 is primarily responsible for the subsequent hydroxylation of hydrodolasetron and both CYPIIIA and flavin monooxygenase are responsible for the N-oxidation of hydrodolasetron.Hydrodolasetron is excreted in the urine unchanged (61.0% of administered oral dose). Other urinary metabolites include hydroxylated glucuronides and N-oxide.Hydrodolasetron appears rapidly in plasma, with a maximum concentration occurring approximately 1 hour after dosing, and is eliminated with a mean half-life of 8.1 hours (%CV=18%) and an apparent clearance of 13.4 mL/min/kg (%CV=29%) in 30 adults. The apparent absolute bioavailability of oral dolasetron, determined by the major active metabolite hydrodolasetron, is approximately 75%. Orally administered dolasetron intravenous solution and tablets are bioequivalent. Food does not affect the bioavailability of dolasetron taken by mouth.Hydrodolasetron is eliminated by multiple routes, including renal excretion and, after metabolism, mainly, glucuronidation and hydroxylation. Two thirds of the administered dose is recovered in the urine and one third in the feces. Hydrodolasetron is widely distributed in the body with a mean apparent volume of distribution of 5.8 L/kg (%CV=25%, N=24) in adults.Sixty-nine to 77% of hydrodolasetron is bound to plasma protein. In a study with 14C labeled dolasetron, the distribution of radioactivity to blood cells was not extensive. Approximately 50% of hydrodolasetron is bound to α1-acid glycoprotein. The pharmacokinetics of hydrodolasetron are linear and similar in men and women.The pharmacokinetics of hydrodolasetron, in special and targeted patient populations following oral administration of dolasetron, are summarized in Table 1. The pharmacokinetics of hydrodolasetron are similar in adult (young and elderly) healthy volunteers and in adult cancer patients receiving chemotherapeutic agents. The apparent clearance following oral administration of hydrodolasetron is approximately 1.6- to 3.4-fold higher in children and adolescents than in adults. The clearance following oral administration of hydrodolasetron is not affected by age in adult cancer patients. The apparent oral clearance of hydrodolasetron decreases 42% with severe hepatic impairment and 44% with severe renal impairment. No dose adjustment is necessary for elderly patients (see PRECAUTIONS, Geriatric Use) or for patients with hepatic or renal impairment.The pharmacokinetics of ANZEMET Tablets have not been studied in the pediatric population. However, the following pharmacokinetic data are available on intravenous ANZEMET Injection administered orally to children.Thirty-two pediatric cancer patients ages 3 to 11 years (N=19) and 12 to 17 years (N=13), received 0.6, 1.2, or 1.8 mg/kg ANZEMET Injection diluted with either apple or apple-grape juice and administered orally. In this study, the mean apparent clearances of hydrodolasetron were 3 times greater in the younger pediatric group and 1.8 times greater in the older pediatric group than those observed in healthy adult volunteers. Across this spectrum of pediatric patients, maximum plasma concentrations were 0.6 to 0.7 times those observed in healthy adults receiving similar doses.For 12 pediatric patients, ages 2 to 12 years receiving 1.2 mg/kg ANZEMET Injection diluted in apple or apple-grape juice and administered orally, the mean apparent clearance was 34% greater and half-life was 21% shorter than in healthy adults receiving the same dose.Clinical StudiesINDICATIONS AND USAGEANZEMET Tablets are indicated for:•1)the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with moderately emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including initial and repeat courses;•2)the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.CONTRAINDICATIONSANZEMET Tablets are contraindicated in patients known to have hypersensitivity to the drug.WARNINGSANZEMET can cause ECG interval changes (PR, QTc, JT prolongation and QRS widening). These changes are related in magnitude and frequency to blood levels of the active metabolite. These changes are self-limiting with declining blood levels. Some patients have interval prolongations for 24 hours or longer. Interval prolongation could lead to cardiovascular consequences, including heart block or cardiac arrhythmias. These have rarely been reported.A cardiac conduction abnormality observed on an intra-operative cardiac rhythm monitor (interpreted as complete heart block) was reported in a 61-year-old woman who received 200 mg ANZEMET for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. This patient was also taking verapamil. A similar event also interpreted as complete heart block was reported in one patient receiving placebo.A 66-year-old man with Stage IV non-Hodgkins lymphoma died suddenly 6 hours after receiving 1.8 mg/kg (119 mg) intravenous ANZEMET Injection. This patient had other potential risk factors including substantial exposure to doxorubicin and concomitant cyclophosphamide.PRECAUTIONSGeneralDolasetron should be administered with caution in patients who have or may develop prolongation of cardiac conduction intervals, particularly QTc. These include patients with hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, patients taking diuretics with potential for inducing electrolyte abnormalities, patients with congenital QT syndrome, patients taking anti-arrhythmic drugs or other drugs which lead to QT prolongation, and cumulative high dose anthracycline therapy.Cross hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in patients who received other selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. These reactions have not been seen with dolasetron mesylate.Drug InteractionsThe potential for clinically significant drug-drug interactions posed by dolasetron and hydrodolasetron appears to be low for drugs commonly used in chemotherapy or surgery, because hydrodolasetron is eliminated by multiple routes. See PRECAUTIONS, General for information about potential interaction with other drugs that prolong the QTc interval. Blood levels of hydrodolasetron increased 24% when dolasetron was coadministered with cimetidine (nonselective inhibitor of cytochrome P-450) for 7 days, and decreased 28% with coadministration of rifampin (potent inducer of cytochrome P-450) for 7 days.ANZEMET has been safely coadministered with drugs used in chemotherapy and surgery. As with other agents which prolong ECG intervals, caution should be exercised in patients taking drugs which prolong ECG intervals, particularly QTc.In patients taking furosemide, nifedipine, diltiazem, ACE inhibitors, verapamil, glyburide, propranolol, and various chemotherapy agents, no effect was shown on the clearance of hydrodolasetron. Clearance of hydrodolasetron decreased by about 27% when dolasetron mesylate was administered intravenously concomitantly with atenolol. ANZEMET did not influence anesthesia recovery time in patients. Dolasetron mesylate did not inhibit the antitumor activity of four chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide) in four murine models.Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of FertilityIn a 24-month carcinogenicity study, there was a statistically significant (P<0.001) increase in the incidence of combined hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in male mice treated with 150 mg/kg/day and above. In this study, mice (CD-1) were treated orally with dolasetron mesylate 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg/day (225, 450 or 900 mg/m2/day). For a 50 kg person of average height (1.46 m2 body surface area), these doses represent 3, 6, and 12 times the recommended clinical dose (74 mg/m2) on a body surface area basis. No increase in liver tumors was observed at a dose of 75 mg/kg/day in male mice and at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day in female mice.In a 24-month rat (Sprague-Dawley) carcinogenicity study, oral dolasetron mesylate was not tumorigenic at doses up to 150 mg/kg/day (900 mg/m2/day, 12 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) in male rats and 300 mg/kg/day (1800 mg/m2/day, 24 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) in female rats.Dolasetron mesylate was not genotoxic in the Ames test, the rat lymphocyte chromosomal aberration test, the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell (HGPRT) forward mutation test, the rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) test or the mouse micronucleus test.Dolasetron mesylate was found to have no effect on fertility and reproductive performance at oral doses up to 100 mg/kg/day (600 mg/m2/day, 8 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) in female rats and up to 400 mg/kg/day (2400 mg/m2/day, 32 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) in male rats.PregnancyTeratogenic EffectsNursing MothersIt is not known whether dolasetron mesylate is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when ANZEMET Tablets are administered to a nursing woman.Pediatric UseANZEMET Tablets are expected to be as safe and effective as when ANZEMET Injection is given orally to pediatric patients. ANZEMET Tablets are recommended for children old enough to swallow tablets (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics in Humans).Geriatric UseADVERSE REACTIONSChemotherapy PatientsIn controlled clinical trials, 943 adult cancer patients received ANZEMET Tablets. These patients were receiving concurrent chemotherapy, predominantly cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin regimens. The following adverse events were reported in ≥2% of patients receiving either ANZEMET 25 mg or ANZEMET 100 mg tablets for prevention of cancer chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in controlled clinical trials (Table 4).Postoperative PatientsIn controlled clinical trials, 936 adult female patients have received oral ANZEMET for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Following is a uling of all adverse events reported in ≥ 2% of patients receiving either placebo or ANZEMET for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in controlled clinical trials (Table 5).In clinical trials, the following infrequently reported adverse events, assessed by investigators as treatment-related or causality unknown, occurred following oral or intravenous administration of ANZEMET to adult patients receiving concomitant cancer chemotherapy or surgery:Cardiovascular: Hypotension; rarely–edema, peripheral edema. The following events also occurred rarely and with a similar frequency as placebo and/or active comparator: Mobitz I AV block, chest pain, orthostatic hypotension, myocardial ischemia, syncope, severe bradycardia, and palpitations. See PRECAUTIONS section for information on potential effects on ECG.In addition, the following asymptomatic treatment-emergent ECG changes were seen at rates less than or equal to those for active or placebo controls: bradycardia, T wave change, ST-T wave change, sinus arrhythmia, extrasystole (APCs or VPCs), poor R-wave progression, bundle branch block (left and right), nodal arrhythmia, U wave change, atrial flutter/fibrillation.Furthermore, severe hypotension, bradycardia and syncope have been reported immediately or closely following IV administration.Dermatologic: Rash, increased sweating.Gastrointestinal System: Constipation, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, anorexia; rarely–pancreatitis.Hearing, Taste and Vision: Taste perversion, abnormal vision; rarely–tinnitus, photophobia.Hematologic: Rarely–hematuria, epistaxis, prothrombin time prolonged, PTT increased, anemia, purpura/hematoma, thrombocytopenia.Hypersensitivity: Rarely–anaphylactic reaction, facial edema, urticaria.Liver and Biliary System: Transient increases in AST (SGOT) and/or ALT (SGPT) values have been reported as adverse events in less than 1% of adult patients receiving ANZEMET in clinical trials. The increases did not appear to be related to dose or duration of therapy and were not associated with symptomatic hepatic disease. Similar increases were seen with patients receiving active comparator. Rarely–hyperbilirubinemia, increased GGT.Metabolic and Nutritional: Rarely–alkaline phosphatase increased.Musculoskeletal: Rarely–myalgia, arthralgia.Nervous System: Flushing, vertigo, paresthesia, tremor; rarely–ataxia, twitching.Psychiatric: Agitation, sleep disorder, depersonalization; rarely–confusion, anxiety, abnormal dreaming.Respiratory System: Rarely–dyspnea, bronchospasm.Urinary System: Rarely–dysuria, polyuria, acute renal failure.Vascular (Extracardiac): Local pain or burning on IV administration; rarely–peripheral ischemia, thrombophlebitis/phlebitis.Post-marketing Adverse Event ReportsThere are very rare reports of wide complex tachycardia or ventricular tachycardia and of ventricular fibrillation/cardiac arrest following intravenous administration.OVERDOSAGEA 59-year-old man with metastatic melanoma and no known pre-existing cardiac conditions developed severe hypotension and dizziness 40 minutes after receiving a 15 minute intravenous infusion of 1000 mg (13 mg/kg) of dolasetron mesylate. Treatment for the overdose consisted of infusion of 500 mL of a plasma expander, dopamine, and atropine. The patient had normal sinus rhythm and prolongation of PR, QRS and QTc intervals on an ECG recorded 2 hours after the infusion. The patient’s blood pressure was normal 3 hours after the event and the ECG intervals returned to baseline on follow-up. The patient was released from the hospital 6 hours after the event.Following a suspected overdose of ANZEMET Injection, a patient found to have second-degree or higher AV conduction block with ECG should undergo cardiac telemetry monitoring.There is no known specific antidote for dolasetron mesylate, and patients with suspected overdose should be managed with supportive therapy. Individual doses as large as 5 mg/kg intravenously or 400 mg orally have been safely given to healthy volunteers or cancer patients.It is not known if dolasetron mesylate is removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.A 7-year-old boy received 6 mg/kg of dolasetron mesylate orally before surgery. No symptoms occurred and no treatment was required.Single intravenous doses of dolasetron mesylate at 160 mg/kg in male mice and 140 mg/kg in female mice and rats of both sexes (6.3 to 12.6 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) were lethal. Symptoms of acute toxicity were tremors, depression and convulsions.DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATIONThe recommended doses of ANZEMET Tablets should not be exceeded.Prevention of Cancer Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and VomitingPrevention of Postoperative Nausea and VomitingHOW SUPPLIEDANZEMET®Tablets (dolasetron mesylate)Strength Quantity NDC Number Description50 mg 5 ct Bottle10 ct Unit Dose Pack 0088-1202-050088-1202-43 Light pink, film coated, round tablet imprinted with “A” on one side and”50″on the other.100 mg 5 ct Bottle10 ct Unit Dose5 ct Buler Pack 0088-1203-050088-1203-430088-1203-29 Pink, film coated, elongated oval tablet imprinted with “100” on one side and “ANZEMET” on the other.Store at controlled room temperature 20–25°C (68–77°F). Protect from light.Prescribing Information as of December 2006Manufactured by: Patheon Pharmaceuticals Inc.Cincinnati, OH 45237Manufactured for: sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC

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